Area - 20,900 sq.
Population - 1,478,000
Cherkasy oblast is the youngest in Ukraine. Established in 1954, the oblast was surrounded
by the borders of Vinnytsya, Kyiv, Kirovograd and Poltava oblasts. Its territory accounts
for 3.5% of the total area of Ukraine. The agricultural land amounts to 1,456,000 ha,
including 1,286,300 ha of ploughed fields, 139,100 ha of meadows and pastures and 30,100
ha of perennial plantations.
As of January 1, 1998, 2.9% of the Ukraine's population lived in this oblast, among them
54.9% in towns and settlements, 45.1% in rural areas.
The oblast has 20 administrative districts, 16 towns of oblast subordination, like
Cherkasy, Smila, Uman, Kaniv, Vatutine and Zolotonosha, and 15 townships and 823 villages.
The oblast is located in the center of Ukraine and has an advantageous geographical
position. Its territory is crossed by major highways, railways and the Dnipro river. The
length of Kremenchuk water reservoir is 130 km. Its average depth is 6 m, the total flood
area reaches 2,252 sq. km.
Due to favorable climatic conditions, the oblast is rich in picturesque forests and
miscellaneous fauna. The Kanivsky National Park is the biggest one in the forest steppe
area. It occupies 341,100 ha.
This is an industrial and agrarian oblast. Manufacturing industry accounts for 40% of the
total output, agriculture, 24%, construction, 7%.
Transport and Communications
The oblast boasts a developed transport infrastructure with railway, river and automobile
The Shevchenko division of Odessa railway is engaged in freight and passenger service.
The aviation company fleet is based on A 410 and AN 2 aircraft, MI 2 helicopters and
planes of other companies to carry passengers and mail, and for agricultural purposes.
Cherkasy airport has a runway capable of receiving the TU 154 and IL 76 aircraft. Dnipro
river transportation and passenger service are also available. Bus communication connects
all towns and settlements of the oblast.
During the period of Ukraine's independence, the development of communication facilities
began: automatic telephone exchanges for 39,800 subscribers and 3 district communication
offices have been commissioned. The electronic digital state-of-the-art exchange has been
put into operation in Cherkasy. It provides regional, intercity and international
telephone communication service.
Over 300 industrial plants are found in this oblast. In 1997, their output was almost Hr
1,264 million. Food and chemical industries prevail in the industrial production structure
(36.2% and 28.4%, respectively). Machine building and metalworking sectors account for
7.6%, power engineering, 11.8%, light industry, 4.7%.
In 1997, the oblast generated 1.324 million kWh, produced 880,000 t of synthetic ammonia,
520,800 t of mineral fertilizers (over one fifth of total output in Ukraine); 15,400 t of
chemical fibers and threads (over one third of the total output); computers for Hr 3.5
million; automatic control devices, Hr 2.2 million, equipment for manufacturing industry,
Hr 10.6 million, equipment for animal husbandry and fodder production, Hr 9.1 million,
chemical equipment, Hr 783,000, equipment for production of chemical fibers, Hr 258,000,
medical equipment, Hr 509,000, respectively.
In 1997, the output of consumer goods totaled Hr 1,015.8 million, among
them food products, Hr 576 million, nonfood products, Hr 325.8 million, alcoholic
beverages, Hr 114 million. Local companies produced 3,155,000 sq. m of silk and 4,243,000
sq. m of cotton cloth, 93,000 pcs of knitted goods; garment products amounted to Hr 38.4
million. The oblast also manufactures washing machines, TV sets, watches, telephone sets,
electric meat grinders, china, earthenware and majolica.
The oblast has a well developed agricultural sector with high culture of farming and
cattle production: 539 collective farms, 34 state and 555 private farms.
Agricultural area in the oblast makes up 88%. As far as the soil fertility is concerned,
the oblast occupies the first place in Ukraine, the land area per capita exceeds the
In 1997, grain crops occupied 547,000 ha (42.5% of arable land), sugar beet, 88,000 ha
(6.8%), sunflower, 61,300 ha (4.8%). Such structure defines the main directions of
development of agricultural sector which concentrates on production of grain, sugar beet
In 1997, local farms produced 1,613,000 t of grain crops, 1,568,000 t of sugar beet,
48,900 t of sunflower, 910,000 t of potato, 284,000 t of vegetables. In comparison with
1996, the growth of potato output constituted 10.1%, that of grain, 14.3%, fruits and
berries, 97%. Production of meat (live weight) reached 123,300 t, milk, 539,300 t, eggs,
302,2 million pcs, cotton, 72 t.
In 1997, the oblast was the second in Ukraine as regards maize and milking (per one cow)
There are 24 sugar mills, 6 meat production plants, 20 dairy factories in the oblast. In
1997, local sugar mills produced 160,400 t of granulated sugar.
In 1997, local enterprises produced 26,100 t of meat and its by products of the 1st
category, 6,700 t of animal oil, 22,800 t of non skimmed milk. Food factories manufacture
a wide range of canned products, confectionery, macaroni, mineral water, alcohol,
alcoholic beverages and soft drinks.
The oblast possesses a
wide range of minerals: nonmetallic materials, reserves for production of bricks and
ceramics, claydite, decoration and cladding stone, construction and glass sands, bentonite
clays, primary and secondary kaolin, cast stone materials.
There exist over 110 deposits of materials for production of bricks and tiles but not all
of them are adequately explored.
The oblast has good prospects for intensive mining of decoration and cladding stone. This
will involve the development of such explored deposits as: Volkivske and Voronivske gabbro
deposits, Korsun-Shevchenkivske, Garbuzynske, Samhorodske and Sanzharske granite deposits.
The oblast's demand in construction stone is fully met by the existing pits and quarries.
The output growth will be achieved through exploration of new deposits and further
development of the existing ones.
The oblast has the deposits of clays suitable for production of claydite and ceramics
whose reserves are explored but not developed. The materials for production of claydite
and ceramics are supplied from elsewhere. It is also possible to develop the deposits of
raw materials for manufacture of glass containers.
Big cast stone reserves are located in the western part of the oblast (Oksanyno,
Dobryanka, Talne). Cast stone has adequate physical chemical properties and can be used
for mass production.
There is also the deposit of bentonite clays whose quality, size and the range of
application are unique. The area of bentonite clays occurrence exceeds 1,000 sq. km.
Bentonite clays are used for insulation, preservation, treatment of harmful, toxic
industrial wastes, for construction of nonpenetration screens and covers.
These clays are widely and profitably used in export/import deals at the world market of
Cherkasy oblast boasts large reserves of secondary kaolin. The quality of kaolin at the
Novoselytske deposit is unique. It has been developed for more than 90 years while similar
Ryzhanivske deposit is being explored. Secondary kaolin is used for production of
refractory products for metallurgy. They have big export potential.
The already explored bauxite deposit is situated near the town of Smila. There exist good
prospects for exploring the new deposits of phosphorites, apatites, mineral paints,
piezoelectric crystal materials, graphite and primary kaolin.
There are also the possibilities of exploration of primary deposits of titanium (Nosachiv
and Mezhyrichya), gold, titanium and molybdenum (southeast part of the oblast), also the
gravel deposits of gold, ilmenite and zirconium.
The left bank part of the oblast has big reserves of mineral water of the Myrhorodska
brand. Radon water was found in the Zvenyhorod, Talne, Lysyansk and Korsun-Shevchenko
districts, but it is only the radon water reserves in Zvenyhorodka district which was
explored in detail and is developed now.